Main Risks

Variability of effects related to pandemic events 

The occurrence of a pandemic can undermine personal health to such a point as to endanger the endurance of the health and socio-economic systems of the countries involved. The duration and magnitude of a pandemic depends, among other things, on the promptness of measures to protect health taken at global level. 

In relation to Covid-19, Leonardo Group’s performance may be affected by the impact arising from the downturn in the civil aviation sector, as well as by volatility of some risk factors, including: market instability and the economic recovery trend, the customers’ and suppliers’ capacity to fulfil the contractual obligations they have entered into and assume others; customers’ revision of procurement strategies; restrictions deriving from measures taken to protect personal health, with repercussions on the Group’s commercial and industrial operations.

In addition to making all possible efforts to preserve its people’s health and safety in full compliance with the relevant rules, Leonardo has put special plans of action in place to limit the possible repercussions of risk factors associated with the COVID-19 pandemic.

The plans of action concern, among other things: constructive management of relations with customers, whether institutional or not, thanks to a widespread presence all over the world, balanced with the application of tools that virtualise promotion and marketing; the adoption of satisfactory financial solutions and an even more selective approach to expenditure in order to maintain financial flexibility in support of both current operations and development actions; the prompt reorganisation of production lines together with carrying out certain technical functions on a remote basis and ongoing oversight of the company’s supply chain.

The change in the level of expenditure of national governments and public institutions may affect business performance
The major customers of the Group are national Governments or public Institutions. Moreover, the Group takes part in numerous national and international programmes funded by the European Union, governments or multinational collaborations. Therefore, it is affected by geopolitical and economic factors, the expense policies of the public Institutions, also for research and development programmes funding, in addition to the medium/long-term plans of the Governments.
The Group pursues an international diversification strategy, placing it in its main markets, as well as in emerging markets marked by significant growth rates, in the aerospace, defence and security markets.
The Group operates in civil sectors that are highly exposed to growing levels of competition
In the civil sectors, customers’ diminished spending capacity not only give rise to delays in obtaining new orders or falls in the numbers of orders themselves, but also affect their economic and financial conditions. These sectors are also characterised by the entry and success of competitors even from other fields of activity, mostly with the help of anti-cyclical M&A transactions carried out by international investment funds. The market positioning of these players could have an impact on the Group's volumes, results and debt.

In addition to balancing its customer portfolio suitably between government and non-government entities, the Group systematically pursues its objectives in order to increase industrial efficiency, diversify its customer base and improve its ability to perform contracts, while reducing overhead costs with a view to enhance its competitive capacity.
The Group ensures highly qualitative and innovative product standards, and an integrated value proposition aimed at maintaining its technological edge, including thanks to open innovation and the interaction with innovative startups and SMEs.

The capacity for innovation and growth depends on the strategic planning and management of skills
Incessant technological innovation and the growing complexity of the Group's businesses require constant alignment of skills, in order to provide high added-value products and services. Any shortage of special expertise and the obsolescence of certain competencies and professional skills could have impacts on the full achievement of short- and medium/long-term business objectives, including possible repercussions in terms of time-to-market of new products and services, as well as of access to emerging business segments.
The Group monitors and manages competencies and professional skills by means of plans of action directed at attracting, retaining and motivating its human resources, managing talents, providing ongoing specialist training and reskilling/upskilling, insourcing core competencies and defining succession plans, with the gradual adoption of state-of-the-art tools of People Analytics and new Lifelong Learning development and training platforms for all personnel, particularly in the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics) area. 
The Group operates in some business segments through partnerships or joint ventures
The corporate strategies contemplate the possibility of gaining business opportunities partly through joint ventures or commercial alliances in order to integrate its technology portfolio or strengthen its presence in the market. The operation of partnerships and joint ventures is subject to both strategic positioning and management risks and uncertainties. Divergences can arise between partners about the identification and achievement of operational and strategic objectives, as well as core business operations.
The Group systematically carries out due diligence activities before and after the completion of partnerships and joint ventures. At this purpose, the active involvement of its top management in any related operation is aimed, among other things, at directing its strategies and identifying and managing any critical issue in a timely fashion.
The Group is exposed to the risk of fraud or illegal activities on the part of employees and third parties
The Group adopts and updates its organisational, control, procedural and training system to ensure compliance with any and all anti-corruption laws applicable in the domestic and foreign markets in which it operates. The possibility cannot be ruled out of employees or third parties behaving in an ethically incorrect or not fully compliant manner, nor can we rule out the possibility of judicial authorities initiating proceedings aimed at establishing any possible liability attributable to the Group, the results and timing of which are difficult to determine and which are likely to entail temporary suspensions from the market concerned.

The Group has set out a model of responsible business conduct aimed at preventing, identifying and responding to the risk of corruption.

Thanks to its model, Leonardo SpA has reached the highest level of Transparency International’s 
Defence Companies Index on Anti-Corruption and Corporate Transparency (DCI), in addition to having its ISO 37001 certification, the first international standard on anti-corruption management system, confirmed in 2020.
Leonardo was the first company in the world's top ten in Aerospace, Defence and Security to obtain this certification. The model also provides for the responsible management of the supply chain, through the qualification, selection and management of suppliers, as well as the adoption of a risk analysis tool within the scope of due diligence audits within the process of engagement assignation to sales promoters, commercial advisor and lobbyists.

The settlement of legal disputes can be extremely complex and might require a considerable period of time
The Group is party to judicial, civil and administrative proceedings; for some of these, the Group has established specific provisions for risks and charges in the consolidated financial statements to cover any potential liabilities that could derive. Some of these proceedings in which the Group is involved – for which a negative outcome is unlikely or that cannot be quantified – are not covered by the provisions referred to above. 
Further developments of judicial proceedings, presently unforeseeable and indefinable, together with the possible consequential impact on Leonardo’s reputation, could also have a significant impact on its relationships with customers. 
The Group regularly monitors potential and existing disputes, taking the necessary corrective actions and adjusting its provisions for risks on a quarterly basis.
The Group operates in particularly complex and regulated markets, which require compliance with specific regulations (e.g. export control)
Defence solutions are of particular importance in terms of compliance with regulatory obligations and, therefore, their export is strictly regulated and is subject to prior authorization, based on specific national and foreign regulations (such as, for example, Italian Law 185/1990 and the U.S. International Traffic in Arms Regulations - ITAR and the Export Administration Regulations - EAR), as well as to customs formalities. The prohibition on, limitation or any possible revocation (for example in the case of embargoes or geopolitical conflicts) of export authorisations for defence or dual-use products, as well as failure to comply with any applicable customs regime, may have substantial adverse effects on the Group's business, financial position, results of operations and cash flows. Moreover, failure to comply with these regulations could also make it impossible for the Group to operate in specific regulated areas.
The Group ensures, through specific functions, a timely implementation and management of the formalities required by the relevant regulations, monitoring their updating on an ongoing basis in order to allow the day-to-day performance of commercial and operational activities, in compliance with the provisions of law and with any possible authorisation and/or limitation and of its Policy of respect for human rights. The Group has promptly made arrangements to carry out the changes necessary as a result of Britain’s exit from the European Union and is continuing to follow developments in customs regulations in order to carry out the necessary modifications immediately. 
The Group operates through a number of industrial plants and processes that may expose it to risks to the health and safety of workers and to environmental risks

The Group's activities are subject to compliance with laws, rules and regulations governing the protection of workers’ health and safety. Specifically, Legislative Decree 81/2008 provides for a health and safety management system for preventive and permanent work, through the identification of risk factors and sources, the elimination or reduction of risk, the ongoing monitoring of preventive measures implemented, the development of a corporate strategy to be implemented through the participation of all stakeholders in the working communities. 

The Group's activities are also subject to compliance with laws, rules and regulations governing the protection of environment and energy management, which imply specific environmental permits aimed at ensuring the compliance with restrictions and conditions on emissions into the atmosphere, water discharges, storage and use of chemical or hazardous substances (e.g. REACH Regulation and RoHS Directive) and waste management and disposal.

Risks to the workers’ health and safety are based on the principle of zero tolerance, in strict compliance with the relevant regulations, and are managed through targeted risk analyses, 
which take account of injury frequency and severity rates and related improvement objectives, specific action and training plans, within the framework of a precise system of proxies and powers for each relevant matter, aimed at ensuring that the action taken complies with the Group’s guidelines. The Group also confirms its commitment to extend the coverage in terms of Health and Safety System, for example through the OHSAS 18001 certification.

The Group complies with the ever-increasing limits and restrictions imposed by the environmental protection regulations as regards sites and production processes. The Group also confirms its commitment to extend coverage in terms of Environmental Management System, for example through the ISO 14001 certification. The Group regularly performs environmental assessments of sites and monitoring, and it also takes out specific insurance policies in order to mitigate the consequences of unexpected events. 

Climate change, the protection of the environment and consequent new developments in the scenario concerned may require action to be taken on certain types of processes and products
The Group's activities may be subject to transition and physical risks towards an economy with low polluting emissions, with possible impacts on business processes, with particular reference to production processes, as well as on the products and services offered.
Corporate sites and assets may also be affected by natural events (floods, drought, fires and others) generated by the effects of climate change.

The Group pursues an industrial strategy aimed improving the efficiency of its production systems and processes on an ongoing basis for the reduction of energy consumption and atmospheric emissions and, thanks also to the participation, as a partner of excellence, in the main European programs for research and innovation, and  develops low environmental impact technological solutions which are functional to the fight against climate change.

The Group puts measures in place against any possible acute or chronic physical risks and has specific insurance cover against the possible consequences of disastrous climatic or natural events.

Breaches of information security obligations can cause damage to the Group, its customers and suppliers and pose a threat to the security of citizens and critical infrastructures
Companies are required to face the risks associated with information security, deriving from ceaseless evolutions in cyber threats and the increase in their attack surfaces, also as a result of increasing digitalisation and the greater number of persons working for their companies from home. 
Computer incidents, including any in the supply chain, stoppages, leaks of personal data and the loss of information that may also be of strategic importance may endanger business and even the Group’s image, above all in the event of the theft of third-party data kept in the Group’s archives.

The Group manages cyber security through dedicated controls and training for the entire corporate population, as well as processes, procedures and specific technologies for the prediction, prevention, detection and management of potential threats and for responding to them. Leonardo is ISO 27001 certified and is constantly engaged in management and improvement activities aimed at maintaining the certification itself.

Leonardo also benefits from substantial experience in the field of cyber security, gained on the market through the competent business Division.  In addition to a continuous improvement in the methods of managing permissions of access to information, Leonardo continues to take any action to extend data and information protection and processing methods and processes to its own suppliers.

The Group could encounter difficulties in protecting its Intellectual Property
Leonardo's success and results also depend on the Company's ability to protect the innovations resulting from its R&D activities through Intellectual Property. In this respect, the Group mainly uses industrial secrets, patents, copyrights. Nevertheless, the possibility cannot be ruled out that the activity of a “disloyal” employee, an improper action on the part of a supplier or a legal but aggressive act on the part of a third party may lead to repercussions on the company’s Intellectual Property. Furthermore, there is a greater risk of counterfeiting in highly technological environments such as that in which Leonardo operates, given the high number of patents held by third parties.
The Group is committed to the continuous improvement of its Intellectual Property protection processes, from the approval of research and development investments, through the definition and implementation of measures to protect technical information and proprietary know-how. Appropriate monitoring and surveillance action is taken to detect any infringements by suppliers, partners or competitors. The creation of the internal IP Correspondent networks, and their expansion and penetration, have been particularly effective in the Divisions.
The Group provides highly complex products, systems and services, including under long-term fixed-price contract
The Group supplies products, systems and services that are particularly complex due to their advanced technological content, including under long-term contracts at a fixed all-inclusive price. Terms and conditions of contracts generally include challenging requirements and rigorous completion times, the failure to honour which may entail the payment of penalties, in addition to warranty liability and claims for damage that are not covered in full by insurance policies. Furthermore, an unforeseen rise in the costs incurred in the performance of a contract, which may also be the result of the occurrence of chance events, could lead to a lower profit. 
From the commercial offer phase and at regular intervals during the performance of the contract, Leonardo considers the projects’ main performance and financial parameters in order to assess its performance and manage risks  throughout the entire life cycle through the detection, assessment, mitigation and monitoring of risks with the definition and management of appropriate contingencies, in order to protect the financial margins of the projects themselves. Risk management is supported by dedicated Risk Managers in project teams. The Group is committed to the continuous improvement of its industrial efficiency and its ability to meet customer specifications.
The risks of performance of contracts, associated with the liability to customers or third parties, also depend on the supply and sub-supply chain  
The Group purchases, in very substantial proportions with respect to its sales, industrial products and services, materials and components, equipment and subsystems; it may therefore incur liability to its customers for operational, legal or financial risks attributable to third parties, who operate as suppliers or sub-suppliers. The Group’s dependence on suppliers for certain business activities might give rise to difficulties in maintaining quality standards and meeting delivery times.

Leonardo has been pursuing its policy of strengthening and improving the supply chain for some years, leveraging a transparent and sustainable partnership relationship with the excellences in its Supply Chain, to give rise to a more innovative, integrated and resilient n industrial eco-system. In addition to the programmes already in place (LEAP2020, ELITE Leonardo Lounge), the Company has defined a set of principles and rules for the assessment of key suppliers, specifically oriented towards the development and growth of the Supply Chain with a view to long-term sustainability (Leonardo Assessment and Development for Sustainability).

The Group is required to fulfil direct or indirect offset obligations in certain countries
In the Aerospace and Defence sector, some international institutional customers require the application of some types of industrial offset related to the award of contracts, sometimes with rigorous requirements, linked to the development policy of each country. Therefore, the Group may undertake offset obligations that require procurement or manufacturing support at local level, technology transfer and investments in industrial projects in the customer's country. Failure to meet offset obligations may result in the application of penalties and, in certain cases, might prevent the Group from participating in contract award procedures in the countries concerned.
The Group manages offset risks by means of appropriate analyses carried out from the offering phase within the project teams, which also appoint an Offset Manager for the division concerned. A due diligence is performed before dealing with a third party under an offset agreement, which is conducted according to the relevant international best practices.
Leonardo has also set up a dedicated central organisational unit to guide and supervise offset activities.
Critical raw materials available on the market
Critical raw materials are of great importance for industrial applications, especially for high-tech applications and, in particular, for components (sensors, actuators, highly miniaturised microprocessors). In some cases, critical raw materials are a decisive enabler for both the initiatives underpinning the European Green Deal and the technologies of certain production sectors. Most of the critical raw materials relevant to the Aerospace and Defence sector are not directly available in Europe, but rather in other mainly non-NATO/EU countries. Availability and production of materials are sometimes concentrated in a single country, which may therefore be in a position to sway the balance between global supply and demand, with impacts on market prices, in particular in scenarios marked by critical geopolitical issues. 
Leonardo, in addition to monitoring the prospective requirements of its supplies, takes part in international working groups, such as those at European and NATO level, which reconcile the interests of both States (supporting the definition of recommendations for member States) and the companies and supply chains involved, in order to encourage the identification of common strategies for mitigating risks. Leonardo also engages in activities having the purpose of enhancing the efficiency of the use of resources (for example fostering circularity mechanisms) as soon as the product technological research and sustainable design phases start. 
A substantial amount of consolidated assets 
is attributable to intangible assets, goodwill in particular
The recoverability of amounts recognised in intangible assets (including goodwill and development costs) is linked to the implementation of future plans and the business plans for the relevant products.

The Group implements a policy of monitoring and limiting amounts capitalised under intangible assets, with specific regard to development costs, and carries out ongoing monitoring of performance under scheduled plans, taking any necessary corrective action in the event of unfavourable trends. These updates are reflected in impairment tests. 

The Group’s debt could have an impact on its strategies
The debt level, beside impacting the profitability as an effect of the related borrowing costs, could affect the Group’s strategy, limiting its operational flexibility. Potential future liquidity crises could also restrict the Group’s ability to repay its debts.

In assuring a solid and balanced structure between sources of funds and investments, Leonardo pursues an ongoing strategy of limiting its debt by paying steady attention to cash generation, which is used, market conditions permitting, to partially reduce the existing debt.

The Group’s credit rating is also linked to the opinions of the credit rating agencies
All Group bond issues are given a medium-term financial credit rating by the international agencies Moody’s Investors Service, Standard and Poor’s and Fitch Ratings. A possible downgrade in the Group’s credit rating could severely limit its access to funding sources, as well as increase its borrowing costs for existing and future loans, which would have a negative impact on the business prospects, performance and financial results.
The Group is actively engaged in reducing its debt as confirmed by the Industrial Plan. The Group’s financial policies and selection of investments and contracts involve being constantly alert to maintaining a balanced financial structure.
In seeking out strategies to pursue, the Group always takes into account the potential impact such could have in the indicators used by the credit rating agencies.
The Group realises part of its revenues in currencies other than the currencies in which costs are incurred, exposing it to the risk of exchange-rate fluctuations. A part of consolidated assets is denominated in US dollars and pound sterling
The Group reports a significant portion of revenues and costs in currencies other than euro (mainly in dollars and pounds). Accordingly, any negative changes in the reference exchange rate might have negative effects (transaction risk).
Moreover, the Group has made significant investments in the United Kingdom, in Poland and in the United States of America: this might have a negative impact on the Group’s results of operations, financial position and cash flows due to the translation of the financial statements of foreign investees (translation risk).
The Group continuously applies an organised systematic hedge policy to combat transaction risk for all contracts in its portfolio by using the financial instruments available on the market.
Moreover, in intercompany financing activities denominated in currencies other than the euro individual positions are hedged at the central level.
The Group is a sponsor of defined-benefit pension plans in the UK and the US and of other minor plans in Europe
Under the pension schemes reserved for employees who mainly operate in the United Kingdom and in the United States of America, the Group is required to ensure a specific future retirement benefit level for employees participating in the plan. In said countries the pension funds in which the Group participates invest resources in the plan assets (stocks, bonds, etc.) that might not be sufficient to cover the agreed-upon benefits. If the value of plan assets is less than the agreed-upon benefit level, the Group duly recognises the amount of the deficit among liabilities, with consequent adverse effects on its financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
The Group monitors pension funds’ investment plans and strategies on an ongoing basis and takes immediate deficit corrective action when necessary.

A further emerging risk recently placed under analysis is related to the product virtualization and the new cyber threats linked to an increase in the usage of artificial intelligence:

Product virtualization and possible new cyber threats linked to Artificial Intelligence
Among the technologies in which Leonardo invests, a strong emphasis is given to Artificial Intelligence (AI) and its future application in value-added solutions for its customers as well as to be used in internal processes. Specifically, product virtualization through the so-called digital-twin, fosters effectiveness, efficiency and sustainability of the product’s development and production phases, and allows an increasingly reliable predictive maintenance and optimization of the total cost of ownership for the customer. However, the progressive adoption of digital-twins in the next years will increase the company surface exposed to cyber threats. Cyber resilience in the medium-long term will no longer be focused only on the final product, but also on its digital-twin, which incorporates its DNA. The cyberattack strategies might be based on new generations of advanced persistent threats, specially designed to target the digital-twins. For Leonardo, these new attack strategies might have direct impacts on the security side and thus on the company’s market positioning.
Taking into account this emerging risk, Leonardo believes that by-design security of the digital twin will be a necessary condition for the protection of the final product delivered to the customer. Leonardo places the by-design security at the centre of the actions aimed at maximizing the cyber resilience of the infrastructure, products and services and at defending the company's intellectual property. Leonardo also adopts a software and application security methodology focused on the SSDLC model (Secure Software Development Life Cycle) which combines the traditional software development cycle with security services that guarantee the development of secure code, the early detection and resolution of potential security breaches.